Aurora polaris (Norwegian: aurorae) is a physical phenomenon that occurs when the solar wind is stronger than normal, with a large electrical discharge that winds electric charged particles toward Earth. The particles are electrons and protons that create light when they collide with gases in Earth's atmosphere. Electrons in gases excites and gives out energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Polar Lights is located at an altitude of between 90 and over 180 km above the earth. The phenomenon can be observed in the
night sky in a belt around the magnetic poles. Aurora emerges
as an undulating light that varies in form, color and strength, from dark blue drop green and yellow, to red and orange.
Norway participates actively in international aurora research, including through Andøya Space Center.
The phenomenon has been observed and photographed from ground level as far south in Norway in Kristiansand
Northern Lights Oval is the area in the atmosphere where the Northern Lights occur. It is in this area the charged particles hit Earth's atmosphere and emit energy in collisions with molecules and atoms in the atmosphere. Northern Lights Oval has a different location during the night and day. At night the auroral oval just across northern Norway.
When and where to find the northern lights
For the best chances to see the northern lights, or aurora borealis, head to Northern Norway or Svalbard between late autumn and early spring.
When to see the northern lights
Seeing the northern lights, or the aurora borealis, as they are also known, is a jaw-dropping and mystical moment.
The lights are at their most frequent in late autumn and winter/early spring. Between the autumn equinox and spring equinox (21 September - 21 March), it is dark between 6 pm and 1 am, and you have maximum chances of spotting the lights. However, the weather is also of importance, and September, October and November tend to be wet and snowless in the north.
From December the weather dries up, and there is normally plenty of snow. If you come in December or January, you experience the polar nights with atmospheric evenings and very short days. In February and March the days are longer and you see more of the snow-clad landscapes during daytime, and the evenings still offer maximum chances to spot the northern lights.
No guarantee can be given, though. Some weeks, you are treated to fantastic displays, repeated several times during the evening. Other times, the snow falls densely, or the northern lights simply stay away. Naturally, the longer you stay and the more time you set aside, the better the odds.
Where to see the northern lights
The northern lights belt hits Northern Norway in the Lofoten Islands, and follows the coast all the way up to the North Cape. This means that no other place on earth offers better chances of spotting the lights, and one location in this area might be as good as another. In fact, one often observes the same northern lights in the Lofoten as in Tromsø, just from a different angle. The driest weather, giving clear skies, is found inland, statistically providing the best chances, but with strong eastern winds, the coast can be clearer than inland areas.
In order to get full value from the show you should avoid the full moon and places with a lot of light as they make the experience considerably paler. Also remember to wrap up warmly.
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